ppas oracle compatibility: various helpers for dbas and developers coming from oracle

February 25, 2015 — Leave a comment

this continues the previous post on the oracle compatibility layer available in ppas. while this previous post introduced some parameters which control the behaviour for dates, strings, object names and transaction isolation this post focusses on some features/helpers that are available in oracle but are not (by default) in plain postgresql. ppas adds these whith the oracle compatibility layer.

dual
as in oracle there is a dual table in ppas:

edb=# select 1+1 from dual;
 ?column? 
----------
        2
(1 row)

edb=# \d dual;
             Table "sys.dual"
 Column |         Type         | Modifiers 
--------+----------------------+-----------
 dummy  | character varying(1) | 

synonyms
there are no synonyms available in community postgres. there are in ppas:

edb=# create table t1 ( a int );
CREATE TABLE
edb=# insert into t1 values (1);
INSERT 0 1
edb=# create synonym s1 for t1;
CREATE SYNONYM
edb=# create public synonym ps1 for t1;
CREATE SYNONYM
edb=# select count(*) from s1;
 count 
-------
     1
(1 row)

edb=# select count(*) from ps1;
 count 
-------
     1
(1 row)

for describing synonyms “describe” must be used, the “\d” switch will not work:

edb=# desc ps1
                                List of synonyms
 Schema | Synonym | Referenced Schema | Referenced Object | Link |    Owner     
--------+---------+-------------------+-------------------+------+--------------
 public | ps1     | enterprisedb      | t1                |      | enterprisedb
(1 row)

   Table "enterprisedb.t1"
 Column |  Type   | Modifiers 
--------+---------+-----------
 a      | integer | 

edb=# \d ps1  
Did not find any relation named "ps1".

more details here.

rownum
the pseudo column rownum is available in ppas:

edb=# create table t1 ( a int );
CREATE TABLE
edb=# insert into t1 values ( generate_series ( 1, 50 ) );
INSERT 0 50
edb=# select a, rownum from t1 where rownum < 5;
 a | rownum 
---+--------
 1 |      1
 2 |      2
 3 |      3
 4 |      4
(4 rows)

more details here.

packages
community postgresql does not know the concept of packages. ppas implements this:

edb=# create package p1
edb-# as
edb$#   procedure pc1;
edb$# end p1;
CREATE PACKAGE
edb=# create package body p1
edb-# as
edb$#   procedure pc1 
edb$#   as
edb$#   begin
edb$#     dbms_output.put_line('a');
edb$#   end pc1;
edb$# begin
edb$#   null;
edb$# end p1;
CREATE PACKAGE BODY

edb=# exec p1.pc1;
a

EDB-SPL Procedure successfully completed

more details here.

build-in packages
ppas comes with a set of build-in packages:

edb=# select distinct name from dba_source where type = 'PACKAGE' order by 1;
      name      
----------------
 DBMS_ALERT
 DBMS_CRYPTO
 DBMS_JOB
 DBMS_LOB
 DBMS_LOCK
 DBMS_MVIEW
 DBMS_OUTPUT
 DBMS_PIPE
 DBMS_PROFILER
 DBMS_RANDOM
 DBMS_RLS
 DBMS_SCHEDULER
 DBMS_SQL
 DBMS_UTILITY
 UTL_ENCODE
 UTL_FILE
 UTL_HTTP
 UTL_MAIL
 UTL_SMTP
 UTL_TCP
 UTL_URL

more details here.

edbplus
if someone prefers to work in a splplus like environment there is edbplus:

pwd
/opt/PostgresPlus/9.4AS
-bash-4.2$ edbplus/edbplus.sh enterprisedb/admin123
Connected to EnterpriseDB 9.4.1.3 (localhost:5444/edb) AS enterprisedb

EDB*Plus: Release 9.4 (Build 33.0.0)
Copyright (c) 2008-2015, EnterpriseDB Corporation.  All rights reserved.

SQL> help index
 
Type 'HELP [topic]' for command line help.
 
@              ACCEPT         APPEND         CHANGE         
CLEAR          COLUMN         CONNECT        DEFINE         
DEL            DESCRIBE       DISCONNECT     EDBPLUS        
EDIT           EXIT           GET            HELP           
HOST           INDEX          INPUT          LIST           
PASSWORD       PAUSE          PRINT          PROMPT         
QUIT           REMARK         SAVE           SET            
SHOW           SPOOL          START          UNDEFINE       
VARIABLE

head over to the documentation to check what is already supported.

Dynamic Runtime Instrumentation Tools Architecture (DRITA)
drita is a kind of perfstat which can be used to analyse performance issues. the usage is straight forward:

as a first step timed_statistics need to be enabled:

edb=# show timed_statistics;
 timed_statistics 
------------------
 off
(1 row)
edb=# alter system set timed_statistics=true;
ALTER SYSTEM
edb=# select pg_reload_conf();
 pg_reload_conf 
----------------
 t
(1 row)

edb=# show timed_statistics;                 
 timed_statistics 
------------------
 on
(1 row)

after that lets create a snapshot:

edb=# SELECT * FROM edbsnap();
       edbsnap        
----------------------
 Statement processed.
(1 row)

… and generate some load on the system:

edb=# create table t1 ( a int, b int );
CREATE TABLE
edb=# create table t2 ( a int, b int );
CREATE TABLE
edb=# insert into t1 values ( generate_series ( 1,10000)
                            , generate_series ( 1,10000) );
INSERT 0 10000
edb=# insert into t2 values ( generate_series ( 1,10000)
                            , generate_series ( 1,10000) );
INSERT 0 10000
edb=# select count(*) from t1, t2;
   count   
-----------
 100000000
(1 row)

create another snapshot:

edb=# SELECT * FROM edbsnap();
       edbsnap        
----------------------
 Statement processed.
(1 row)

as we need the snapshot ids to generate a report lets check what we have available:

edb=# select * from get_snaps();                                                                                
          get_snaps          
-----------------------------
 1 24-FEB-15 16:21:55.420802
 2 24-FEB-15 16:25:16.429357
(2 rows)

now we can generate a report, e.g. the report for system wait information:

edb=# select * from sys_rpt(1,2,10);
                                   sys_rpt                                   
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 WAIT NAME                                COUNT      WAIT TIME       % WAIT
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 autovacuum lock acquire                  18         0.040010        73.84
 query plan                               2          0.011015        20.33
 db file read                             6          0.003124        5.77
 xid gen lock acquire                     3          0.000021        0.04
 sinval lock acquire                      7          0.000006        0.01
 buffer free list lock acquire            9          0.000005        0.01
 freespace lock acquire                   0          0.000001        0.00
 wal buffer mapping lock acquire          0          0.000000        0.00
 multi xact gen lock acquire              3          0.000000        0.00
 wal flush                                0          0.000000        0.00
(12 rows)

there are many other reports which can be generated, inluding:

  • sess_rpt() for session wait information
  • sessid_rpt() for session ID information for a specified backend
  • sesshist_rpt() for session wait information for a specified backend
  • edbreport() for data from the other reporting functions, plus additional system information

more details here.

oracle like catalog views
various oracle like catalog views (all_*, dba_*, user_*) are available in ppas:

edb=# select schemaname,viewname 
        from pg_views 
       where viewname like 'dba%' order by 1,2 limit 5;
 schemaname |     viewname     
------------+------------------
 sys        | dba_all_tables
 sys        | dba_cons_columns
 sys        | dba_constraints
 sys        | dba_db_links
 sys        | dba_ind_columns
(5 rows)

more details here.

summary
enterprise db did a great job making life easier for oracle dbas wanting to learn postgresql. in addition the oracle compatibility layer lowers the burdens of migrating applications from oracle to postgres significantly. you almost can start immediately working on a postgresql database by using your existing oracle skills.

the above is only a sub-set of what the oracle compatibility layer provides. for a complete overview check the official documentation.

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